Glossary

Glossary

If any of the terms we use are not familiar to you, please find a brief description of them here.

3 R’s (reduction, replacement and refinement) A framework for conducting high quality science and humane animal research. Focus is on avoiding or replacing the use of animals, reducing the number of animals used per experiment and minimising suffering and improving animal welfare.
Aftermath grazing Regrowth on a meadow after a mid-summer hay cut.
Anthelmintic A medicine used to treat infection with parasitic worms.
Anthelmintic resistance Drug tolerance in worms that is inherited and allows them to survive a dose of anthelmintic that would normally be effective.
Bioequivalence Where the active ingredients of two drug products have no significant difference between their rate and extent of absorption.
Biosafety level 2 containment facility A laboratory suitable for work involving agents that pose moderate hazards to personnel and the environment.
Cercariae A free-swimming larval stage in which a parasitic fluke passes from an intermediate host (typically a snail) into another intermediate or final vertebrate host.
CRO (contract research organisation) An organisation that provides clinical trial and other research services to the veterinary, pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries and to academic institutes.
Cryopreservation The cooling and storing of cells, tissues or organs at very low temperatures to maintain their viability.
Ectoparasite A parasite, such as a flea, tick or mite, that lives on the outside of its host.
Egg hatch assay A laboratory tool used to determine a given parasite’s resistance to a drug.
ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) A laboratory test used to detect and quantify substances such as peptides, proteins, antibodies and hormones.
Encyst To enclose or become enclosed in a cyst
Endoparasite A parasite, such as a worm, that lives inside its host.
ESCCAP (The European Scientific Counsel for Companion Animal Parasites) UK and Ireland An independent, not for profit organisation that provides information and tools for vets and pet owners to help them protect dogs and cats from parasitic threats.
Excyst To emerge from a cyst
Faecal antigen test A laboratory tool used to detect and quantify antigens in faeces.
Faecal egg count A laboratory tool used to detect and quantify parasite eggs in faeces.
Field Studies A research project carried out in the natural setting or context of the subject of the study.
Fluke A parasitic flatworm that typically uses suckers to attach itself to its host. Most have a complex lifecycle with at least two hosts.
GCP (good clinical practice) An international ethical and scientific quality standard.
GLP (good laboratory practice) Regulations that test facilities which conduct, or intend to conduct, regulatory studies must comply with when carrying out safety tests in a number of areas e.g. pharmaceuticals and veterinary medicines.
Helminth A parasitic worm.
Helminth passage The propagation of parasitic worms in a host organism or culture medium.
In vitro A process performed outside a living organism.
In vivo A process performed in a living organism.
Larval development test A test used to detect the presence of anthelmintic resistance in worms.
Metacercariae The encysted final larval form of a parasitic fluke
Miracidia A free-swimming larval stage in which a parasitic fluke passes from its egg to its first host, typically a snail.
Nematode A roundworm
PGE (parasitic gastroenteritis) A common disease of cattle caused by infection with a number of different intestinal
parasitic worms at the same time.
EPG (eggs per gram) The expression of the result of a laboratory test that counts the number of parasite eggs per gram in faeces.
Pharmacodynamics The branch of pharmacology concerned with how a drug affects an organism.
Pharmacokinetics The branch of pharmacology concerned with how an organism absorbs, distributes, metabolises and excretes a drug.
Preclinical Research on a drug to determine if it is safe and effective, prior to a clinical study.
QA (quality assurance) A process or processes to ensure a minimum standard in a product or service is maintained.
Residue The amount of a veterinary medicine that remains in a food-producing animal after treatment, and which diminishes over time.
SOPs (standard operating procedures) Detailed instructions for staff to follow that help maintain quality, safety and security.
SQP (suitably qualified person) A category of professionally qualified people who are entitled to prescribe and / or supply certain veterinary medicines under the Veterinary Medicines Regulations.
UK GLPMA (UK Good Laboratory Practice Monitoring Authority) The organisation with responsibility for monitoring test facilities for compliance with the principles of GLP. Part of the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency, which is an executive agency of the Department of Health.
WEC (worm egg count) A test on a sample of faeces to identify and quantify an infection with a parasitic worm. The results are shown as the number of eggs per gram of faeces.

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